Friday, November 18, 2005


Gemeente (commune), Limburg provincie, southeastern Netherlands. It lies along the Maas (Meuse) River, near the German border. Chartered in 1343, it joined the Hanseatic League in 1364 and was a medieval fortress and trade centre. Venlo is now the centre of “greenhouse” market gardening; vegetables are exported to the Rhineland. The municipality also manufactures electric bulbs,

Sunday, October 16, 2005


The younger brother of Charlemagne, with whom, at the instance of their father, Pippin III the Short, he was anointed king of the Franks in 754 by Pope Stephen II (or III) in the abbey of Saint-Denis. Carloman inherited the eastern part of Pippin's lands (768). He favoured alliance with the Lombards and married Gerberga, a daughter of their king, Desiderius. When

Monday, August 08, 2005

Ear Disease, Frostbite

The exposed position of the outer ear makes it the part of the body most frequently affected by freezing, or frostbite. Humidity, duration of exposure, and, most of all, wind, in addition to degrees of temperature below freezing, predispose to the occurrence of frostbite. The frozen area begins along the upper and outer edge of the ear, which becomes yellow-white and waxy

Wednesday, July 27, 2005


Also called  Boghead Coal,   mineral substance intermediate between oil shale and coal. Whereas destructive distillation of coals produces compounds of carbon and hydrogen with carbon atoms linked in six-membered rings, torbanite produces paraffinic and olefinic hydrocarbons (compounds with carbon linked in chains). As the hydrocarbon content of oil shale increases, torbanite becomes

Monday, July 25, 2005


(Italian cobola: “couplet”), originally an operatic aria with a simple, animated rhythm, and later a fast concluding section of an operatic aria, usually at the end of an act. An example of the earlier type is “Le belle immagini” (“The Beautiful Images”) in Gluck's Paride ed Elena (1770). In 19th-century Italian opera, cabaletta may mean either a short aria in quick tempo with repeated sections

Saturday, July 23, 2005

Muris, Jean De

French philosopher and mathematician who was a leading proponent of the new musical style of the 14th century. In his treatise Ars novae musicae (1319; “The Art of the New Music”) he enthusiastically supported the great changes in musical style and notation occurring in the 14th century and associated with the composer and theorist Philippe de Vitry, whose

Wednesday, July 13, 2005

Empiricism, In medieval philosophy

Most medieval philosophers after St. Augustine (see below, Criticism and evaluation) took an Empiricist position, at least about concepts, even if they recognized much substantial but nonempirical knowledge. The standard formulation of this age was: “There is nothing in the intellect that was not previously in the senses.” Thus St. Thomas Aquinas (1225–74) altogether rejected